Map Document: In ArcMap, the file that contains one map, its layout, and its associated layers, tables, charts, and reports. Map documents can be printed or embedded in other documents. Map document files have an .mxd extension.
Table on Contents: a tabbed list of data frames and layers (or tables) on a map that shows how the data is symbolized, the source of the data, and whether or not each layer is selectable.
Data Frame: A map element that defines a geographic extent, a page extent, a coordinate system, and other display properties for one or more layers in ArcMap. A dataset can be represented in one or more data frames. In data view, only one data frame is displayed at a time; in layout view, all a map's data frames are displayed at the same time. Many cartography texts use the term "map body" to refer to what ESRI calls a data frame.
Map Layer: Layers are the mechanism used to display geographic datasets in ArcMap, ArcGlobe, and ArcScene. Each layer references a dataset and specifies how that dataset is portrayed using symbols and text labels. When you add a layer to a map, you specify its dataset and set its map symbols and labeling properties.
Attribute Table: A database or tabular file containing information about a set of geographic features, usually arranged so that each row represents a feature and each column represents one feature attribute. In raster datasets, each row of an attribute table corresponds to a certain zone of cells having the same value. In a GIS, attribute tables are often joined or related to spatial data layers, and the attribute values they contain can be used to find, query, and symbolize features or raster cells.